Scheme is a statically scoped and properly tail-recursive dialect of the List programming language invented by Guy Lewis Steele Jr. and Gerald Jay Sussman. It was designed to have an exceptionally clear and simple semantics and few different ways to form expressions. A wide variety of programming paradigms, including imperative, functional, and message passing styles, find convenient expression in Scheme.
-- from R. Kelsey, W. Clinger, J. Rees (eds.), Revised5 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme, Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation, Vol. 11, No. 1, September, 1998.
See http://www.schemers.org/ for more information on the language and available implementations.
Here's what I (Brian Howard) hate about Scheme (without mentioning the word p*r*nth*s*s):
- Lisp's S-expressions were originally intended as the internal representation of programs, which would be written in the more human-friendly M-expression syntax. Through historical accident, the M-expression design was never finished and people learned to make do with S-expressions.
- An S-expression is essentially what is known as Abstract Syntax (see Wikipedia:Abstract_syntax). This is fine for compiler internals, and for abstracting away from the gory details of a particular language, but I don't believe it is appropriate for beginning students. There is no point in learning an abstraction before one has seen at least two concrete instances of the abstraction.
- car and cdr. I know the origin of the terms, and understand that cons-cells are used for more than just lists, but why aren't they called something clear like first and rest? Of course, many reasonable people do exactly that by defining these as synonyms (see, for example, How to Design Programs), but I find it telling that the official definition of Scheme sticks to the traditional names, as if to emphasize that "you need to learn Lisp/Scheme?-speak to join this club". It reminds me of some of the more extreme elements of the APL/J community; for example, look at the front page of the J Primer: someone thought it would be clever to use the following as the menu bar on the document that helps beginners learn the system!
>> << Ndx Usr Pri Phr Dic Rel Voc !: wd Help Primer
It makes sense once you know what you're doing, but it's just going to turn away anyone who isn't willing to puzzle it out.
- One advantage of using car and cdr that I have heard is that it makes it convenient to name combinations of them; for example, caddr is the car of the cdr of the cdr of its argument (which extracts the third element of a list, if the argument was a list with at least three elements). My response is that this is only an advantage if you don't have structured data types with named selectors, so that you're constantly having to extract elements of lists by position. Furthermore, if you are hard-coding position-sensitive information such as "third element of a list" into your code, you have a very fragile design; the c(a|d)*r abbreviations don't help at all if you want to access the nth element of a list.
- On the topic of excluding non-geeks (eventually--this one's a bit long): I liked LISP when I was a teenager, and well into grad school. I first learned about it in Gödel, Escher, Bach, which I devoured when I was 15 (I once read an interview with Hofstadter where he said he wrote it for 15-year-olds who were interested in the things he had been interested in at 15, and I was so proud...). I taught myself the language from the two books I could find on LISP at the Cleveland Public Library: The LISP 1.5 Programmers Manual and Anatomy of LISP. I wrote a LISP interpreter in LOGO on my Commodore 64. I went off to an engineering school and studied computer science; my senior honors thesis was on two-level grammar representations of music -- I implemented it in LISP. I went to grad school in CS at Stanford, met John McCarthy and a bunch of other LISPers. Then I started to learn more about programming language design, and how it needs to be a trade-off between safety and flexibility, and I moved in the direction of providing more safety; my Ph.D. thesis was on type systems for functional languages. Now I'm teaching CS at a liberal-arts college, and I look back on my days as a geek and realize that very few students are going to follow that sort of path. I think there are valuable ideas in functional languages that I can use in my teaching, but I realize that I have to guard against turning off many of the students who can most benefit from being exposed to those ideas. They aren't the geeks who are going to put in the effort to teach themselves an arcane language because it looks "neat"; instead, they're the students who will be spreading knowledge of computer science outside of the core circle of researchers. If one of the ideas that they spread is that "functional languages are only for geeks", then we're never going to succeed in bringing higher-level languages and programming techniques into the mainstream.
- Here are some quotes from a paper about DrScheme that demonstrate that the Scheme community itself is aware of many of these shortcomings:
- "Simple notational mistakes produced inexplicable results or incomprehensible error messages because the syntax of standard Scheme is extremely liberal."
- "The Lisp-style output syntax obscured the pedagogically important connection between program execution and algebraic expression evaluation."
- "The hidden imperative nature of Scheme's read-eval-print loop introduced subtle bugs that easily frustrate students."
- "Contrary to oft-stated claims, learning Scheme syntax poses problems for beginning students who are used to conventional algebraic notation."
- More rants coming, mostly about types... (but until that happens, read this excellent defense of static typing).
-- Brian Howard - 21 Apr 2003; last updated 29 Jan 2007